I am interested in how networked communication, social media and digital data traces have changed the experience of childhood both for children and people they w n questions about privacy, surveillance and the way companies producing wearables, apps and devices tend to collect data about children. Questions of sharenting, privacy, data security, the right to be forgotten and the rights of children are all central to my work. I am currently a Chief Investigator in the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child which launched in 2020 with the broad remit of increasing our national understanding of the way childhood has changed in Australia in light of digital technologies
Locke, K., & Leaver, T. (2023). Pokémon Go and Urban Accessibility. In K. Ellis, T. Leaver, & M. Kent (Eds.), Gaming Disability: Disability Perspectives on Contemporary Video Games (pp. 210–221). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367357153-20
Ellis, K., Leaver, T., & Kent, M. (2023). Introduction: Gaming (and) Disability. In Gaming Disability: Disability Perspectives on Contemporary Video Games (pp. 1–15). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367357153-1
Ellis, K., Leaver, T., & Kent, M. (Eds.). (2023). Gaming Disability: Disability Perspectives on Contemporary Video Games (1st edition). Routledge.
Leaver, T. (2022, October 4). Coroner finds social media contributed to 14-year-old Molly Russell’s death. How should parents and platforms react?, The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/coroner-finds-social-media-contributed-to-14-year-old-molly-russells-death-how-should-parents-and-platforms-react-191757
Ruiz-Gomez, A., Leaver, T., & Abidin, C. (2022). Playing YouTube: How the Nancy YouTuber doll and app position children as aspiring YouTube influencers. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 25(2), 121–140. https://doi.org/10.1177/13678779211063222 [Open Access Preprint]
Archer, C., & Leaver, T. (2021). Santa’s Little Helper and Star of Instagram, Elf on the Shelf: Gendered Labour, Normalising Surveillance and Digitising a Childhood Phenomenon. In D. Holloway, M. Willson, K. Murcia, C. Archer, & F. Stocco (Eds.), Young Children’s Rights in a Digital World: Play, Design and Practice (pp. 299–312). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65916-5_22 [Pre-print]
Leaver, T. (2021). Balancing Privacy: Sharenting, Intimate Surveillance and the Right to Be Forgotten. In L. Green, D. Holloway, K. Stevenson, T. Leaver, & L. Haddon (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Children and Digital Media. Routledge. [Pre-print]
Green, L., Holloway, D., Stevenson, K., Leaver, T. & Haddon, L. (Eds.). (2021) The Routledge Companion to Children and Digital Media. Routledge.
Sharp, G., Fardouly, J., Bromberg, M., Leaver, T., & Gerrard, Y. (2021, September 23). Instagram can make teens feel bad about their body, but parents can help. Here’s how. The Conversation. http://theconversation.com/instagram-can-make-teens-feel-bad-about-their-body-but-parents-can-help-heres-how-168093
Leaver, T. (2021, 3 August). Instagram’s privacy updates for kids are positive. But plans for an under-13s app means profits still take precedence. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/instagrams-privacy-updates-for-kids-are-positive-but-plans-for-an-under-13s-app-means-profits-still-take-precedence-165323
Leaver, T. (2018) Co-creating Birth and Death on Social Media In Z. Papacharissi (Ed.) A Networked Self and Birth, Life, Death. (pp. 35-49). New York: Routledge. [Pre-print]
Leaver, T., & Highfield, T. (2018). Visualising the ends of identity: pre-birth and post-death on Instagram. Information, Communication & Society, 21(1), 30–45. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1259343
Leaver, T., (2017). Intimate Surveillance: Normalizing Parental Monitoring & Mediation of Infants Online. Social Media + Society, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305117707192
Leaver, T. and Nansen, B. (2017) ‘Infancy Online’ special issue of Social Media + Society, 3,2, June 2017, http://journals.sagepub.com/page/sms/collections/special-issues/infancy-online.
Leaver, T. (2017, December 28). Facebook hoping Messenger Kids will draw future users, and their data. ABC News. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-12-28/messenger-kids-is-facebooks-strategy-video-messeging-app-google/9285530?section=analysis
Leaver, T. (2015). Born Digital? Presence, Privacy, and Intimate Surveillance. In Hartley, J & W. Qu (Eds.), Re-Orientation: Translingual Transcultural Transmedia. Studies in narrative, language, identity, and knowledge (pp. 149–160). Shanghai: Fudan University Press
Leaver, T. (2015). Researching the Ends of Identity: Birth and Death on Social Media. Social Media + Society, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115578877
Nansen, B. and Leaver, T. (Eds.). (2015) Beginnings issue of M/C Journal, 18, 5, October 2015, http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/issue/view/beginnings (Edited special issue; Editorial.)
Leaver, T. (2022, 24 November). Unboxing Data and Privacy via Young Children’s Wearables. Australian and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Annual Conference ‘Communicating Through Chaos’, University of Wollongong. https://www.slideshare.net/Tama/unboxing-data-and-privacy-via-young-childrens-wearables
Leaver, T. (2022, November). Adam Mosseri: Constructing Instagram’s Top Dad. Paper presented at AoIR 2022: The 23rd Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers. Dublin, Ireland: AoIR. Retrieved from http://spir.aoir.org.
Leaver, T. (2022, 7 September) Child Influencers: Frameworks and Ethics, The Digital Child: eSafety and Digital Citizenship Symposium. Curtin Singapore. [Invited Presentation, Online]
Leaver, T. (2021) Instagram: The Collision of Communication and Commerce, Plenary presentation for The Australia and New Zealand Academy for Eating Disorders Conference 2021, #ANZAED2021, Online, 21st August 2021. https://youtu.be/jIdkMr0mrc8
Leaver, T. (2020) Creating Each Other on Instagram, in panel “Approaching Instagram: New Methods and Modes for Examining the Visual Social Media.” with Crystal Abidin, Tim Highfield, Mari Lehto, Anthony McCosker, Adam Suess, Katie Warfield, and Alice Witt. International Communication Conference 2020, Gold Coast. 21-25 May 2020. [Panel Organiser] https://youtu.be/_-FGCcVP23c
Leaver, T. (2019) Closed Literacies and the Gamification of Infancy, Open Literacy Research Symposium, Fremantle, Western Australia, 30 September 2019.
Leaver, T. and C. Abidin (2018) From YouTube to TV, and Back Again: Viral Video Child Stars and Media Flows in the Era of Social Media, Internet Research 2018, Selected Papers of #AoIR2018, Montreal, Canada, 10-13 October. https://doi.org/10.5210/spir.v2018i0.10491
Archer, C. and Leaver, T. (2018, July 11) Santa’s little helper and star of Instagram, #elfontheshelf: Normalising surveillance and digitising a childhood phenomenon, presented at Digitalising Early Childhood International Conference, Perth, Western Australia.
Leaver, T. (2017, December 4). Bad Mums of Instagram?, Minority Stereotypes in Digital Culture Symposium, 4-5 December 2017, Perth, The University of Western Australia.
Leaver, T. (2017, November 13) Intimate Surveillance and Affective Monitoring of Infants. Digital Intimacies 3.0: Connections & Disconnections, 13-15 November, RMIT, Melbourne, Australia.
Abidin C. & Leaver, T. (13 September 2017), From YouTube to TV and Back Again: Viral video child stars and media flows in the era of social media , Digitising Early Childhood Conference, Perth, Australia, https://www.slideshare.net/Tama/from-youtube-to-tv-and-back-again-viral-video-child-stars-and-media-flows-in-the-era-of-social-media
Leaver, T. (12 September 2017), Turning Babies into Big Data–And How to Stop it [Invited Keynote], Digitising Early Childhood Conference, Perth, Australia, https://www.slideshare.net/Tama/turning-babies-into-big-data-and-how-to-stop-it
Leaver, T. (2017, April 19) The Will to App: digitising public health, Public Panel, UNSW Media Research Network, Sydney, 4pm, 19 April 2017. [Invited speaker.]
Leaver, T. (2017, April 19) Solving Parenthood? Apps, Infant Wearables & Digital Solutionism, The Will to App Symposium, UNSW Sydney. [Invited paper.]
Leaver, T. Intimate Surveillance: Normalizing Cultures of Monitoring from Conception to Infancy, Crossroads in Cultural Studies Conference, Sydney, Australia, 15 December 2016, http://www.slideshare.net/Tama/intimate-surveillance-normalizing-cultures-of-monitoring-from-conception-to-infancy
Leaver, T. Normalizing Intimate Surveillance: Parental Monitoring and Mediation of Infants Online, Controlling Data: Someone Think of the Children Symposium, 24 October 2016, Perth, Western Australia, http://www.slideshare.net/Tama/intimate-surveillance-normalizing-parental-monitoring-and-mediation-of-infants-online [Mp3 Audio Recording]
Leaver, T. and Highfield, F. (2015) Instagramming The Ends of Identity: Pre-birth and post-death identity practices mapped via the #ultrasound and #funeral hashtags, 12th ICA Mobile Pre-Conference, From Womb to Tomb: Mobile Research Across Genders, Generations, Ethnicities, Cultures, and Life Stages, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 20-21, 2015 http://www.slideshare.net/campoalto/instagrammingthe-ends-of-identity-prebirth-and-postdeath-identity-practices-mapped-via-theultrasound-and-funeral-hashtags
Leaver, T. ‘Captured at Birth? Presence, Privacy and Intimate Surveillance’ IR15: Boundaries and Intersections, Association of Internet Researchers Conference, Daegu, South Korea, 23 October 2014, http://slidesha.re/1HqNFcY
Leaver, T. and Highfield, T. ‘Mapping the Ends of Identity on Instagram’, presented at the Australian and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Annual Conference, Swinburne University, Melbourne, 9 July 2014, http://slidesha.re/1oyDVl7
Leaver, T. ‘Born Digital? Birth and Social Media’, Culture +8: New times, New Zones, Margaret River, Western Australia, 5 June 2014 (invited presentation).
Leaver, T. ‘Captured at Birth? Intimate Surveillance and Digital Legacies’, presented at Surveillance, Copyright, Privacy: The end of the open internet Conference, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1 Feburary 2014, http://slidesha.re/1jVSnnl
Leaver, T. ‘The Ends of Online Identity’, Internet Research 12, Seattle, 10-13 October 2011. http://slidesha.re/1D4Mr7t
Leaver, T. Invited panellist in Nadia Mitsopoulos, Spotlight forum: social media, child influencers and keeping your kids safe online, Mornings, ABC Perth Radio, 26 October 2022, 9-10am. [Mp3] [Radio] https://www.abc.net.au/perth/programs/mornings/spotlight-forum-social-media-child-influencers/101580364
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Peter Barr, Kids and YouTube Stars, ABC Regional Drive, ABC SouthWest, 3 October 2022, 3.51pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by María Luisa Paúl, You met him as ‘Corn Kid.’ Now, he’s South Dakota’s ‘Corn-bassador.’, The Washington Post, 7 September 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2022/09/07/corn-kid-song-tiktok-ambassador/
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Elaine Kasket, The Other End of Identity: Digital Gestation, Still Spoken Podcast, 26 August 2022. https://www.buzzsprout.com/1038889/11204310-the-other-end-of-identity-digital-gestation-and-children-s-data [Podcast]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Christine Layton, Child influencers can make millions, but what are their legal rights?, Early Afternoons, ABC Radio Perth, 17 August 2022, 12.43pm. [Radio] [Mp3] https://www.abc.net.au/perth/programs/wa-afternoons/child-influencers/101343312
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Josh Szeps, What Are Child Influencers?, Late Afternoons, ABC Radio Sydney, 16 August 2022, 3.14pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Ros Childs, How do we protect child influencers and ‘kidfluencers’?, ABC News 24, Sydney, 16 August 2022, 12.50pm. [TV] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFrZ0B_6Qvw
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Sophie Kesteven and Emma Nobel, Child influencers are becoming more common in Australia but who is looking after their rights?, ABC News, 16 August 2022. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2022-08-16/who-is-looking-after-rights-of-child-influencers-in-australia/101313938
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Joanna Panagopolous, Would you post your kid online after these chilling allegations?, The Oz, The Australian, 10 August 2022, https://www.theaustralian.com.au/the-oz/internet/even-innocuous-photos-of-kids-carry-risk/news-story/5c3f6b57a085b8d89169844455b9bc08
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Hilary Harper, Next gen influencers: child stars in the online age, Life Matters, ABC Radio National, 13 July 2022, 9.40am. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lifematters/next-gen-influencers:-child-stars-in-the-online-age/13969618
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Joseph Lam, Parents get insight into teens’ Insta, The Australian, 15 June 2022, p. 3. https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/instagram-parents-to-guard-teen-feed-followers/news-story/d09ca161cb1161d2fd75c381902489cc?btr=f6a7f42a353533123ab9c82dbef8b3fd
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Josh Butler, ‘Huge privacy risks’ in social media age verification plan for Facebook, Spotify, The New Daily, 26 October 2021. https://thenewdaily.com.au/news/2021/10/25/social-media-age-verification-plan/
Leaver, T. Interviewed in James Ried, Instagram for kids paused over potential mental health concerns, The New Daily, 28 September 2021, https://thenewdaily.com.au/life/tech/2021/09/28/instagram-kids-mental-health/
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Bree Smolinski, Think before you post: the impact of sharing photos of your child online, Curtin News Stories, 20 September 2021, https://news.curtin.edu.au/stories/think-before-you-post-the-impact-of-sharing-photos-of-your-child-online/
Leaver, T. Invited panellist in Spotlight forum: how to protect your privacy in an increasingly tech-driven world, ABC Radio Perth, Mornings, 9am, 11 August 2021, https://www.abc.net.au/radio/perth/programs/mornings/spotlight-forum-on-privacy/13492708. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Dee Dee Dunleavy, Child Influencers on Instagram, 3AW Melbourne, Afternoons, 2 June 2021. 2.07pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Sam McManus, Youth Crimes Posted Online, 7 News Toowoomba, 10 May 2021, 6.05pm. https://youtu.be/QokaSFoeGuk [TV]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Cassie McCullagh, Digital Birth Certificates, Focus, ABC Radio Sydney, 28 April 2021, 10.50am. https://www.abc.net.au/radio/sydney/programs/focus/focus/13312836 [mp3] [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Jeff Bullen, TikTok and Children’s Data, On the Record, RTRFM, 27 April 2021, 9.20am. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Catalina Flórez, TikTok Lawsuit, SBS World News, 22 April 2021, 7.14pm. [TV]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Anna Moulder, TikTok Kids Lawsuits & Instagram Modifications, ABC Radio NSW, Statewide Drive, 22 April 2021, 4.39pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Alexandra Barwick, Sharing Kids Photos Online, ABC Alice Springs, Drive, 8 December 2020, 4.08pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Annabel Hennessy, Children vulnerable to online bullies, The West Australian, Tuesday, 31 March 2020, pp. 1, 11.
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Rhett Burnie, Primary School App Use and Privacy, ABC Radio Canberra, Canberra, AM, 19 February 2020, 8.20am. [Mp3]
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Carmelle Wilkinson, Valuable lessons in School Safety, Canning Gazette, Perth, 6 February 2020, p.5.
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Fiona Wyllie, AirDrop and Cyberflashing, NSW Statewide Drive, ABC Mid North Coast, 21 June 2019, 3.34pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Nicole Precel, Ursula didn’t know what cyber flashing was until the day at the museum, The Age, 20 June 2019, https://www.theage.com.au/national/ursula-didn-t-know-what-cyber-flashing-was-until-the-day-at-the-museum-20190512-p51mm6.html
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Gian De Poloni and Kate Leaver, Cyber flashing is the new iPhone safety threat as AirDrop used to share porn, explicit content, ABC News, 12 May 2019, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-05-12/cyber-flashing-porn-sent-to-iphones-using-airdrop/11092974
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Aaron Kearney, Should you be posting photos of your kids online?, Drive, ABC Radio Newcastle, 14 March 2019, 2.45pm, https://www.abc.net.au/radio/newcastle/programs/drive/
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Rhianna Mitchell, Fears as troll targets kids online, The Sunday Times, 3 March 2019, p. 20. https://www.perthnow.com.au/technology/internet/momo-challenge-labelled-a-hoax-by-experts-youtube-ng-b881123682z
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Bethany Hiatt, The Sad Reality of Back to School 2019, The West Australian, 5 February 2019, p. 9. https://thewest.com.au/news/education/cyber-fears-are-the-sad-reality-of-back-to-school-2019-ng-b881093912z
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Annie Gaffney, When Should Children Get Their First Smartphone, National Afternoons, ABC Sydney (and Nationally), 1 January 2019, 2.11pm. [Radio] [Mp3 Recording]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Geoff Hutchison, Surveillance and Elf on the Shelf, Drive, ABC Radio Perth, 11 July 2018, 6.20pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Interviewed by Geof Parry and Lisa Barnes, Elf on the Shelf and Child Surveillance, Breakfast, 6PR 882, 8.20am, 11 July 2018. https://omny.fm/shows/breakfast-with-steve-and-basil/tama-leaver-elf-on-the-shelf [Radio]
Leaver, T. Quoted in Holly Hales, Snow joke! Fears Elf on the Shelf toy that reports on kids being naughty or nice ‘normalises a surveillance culture and encourages spying’, The Daily Mail, 11 July 2018, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5940123/Elf-Shelf-Christmas-toys-accused-encouraging-spying-kids.html
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Rhianna Mitchell, Worry over ‘sinister surveillance’ of toys, The West Australian, 11 July 2018, p. 3, https://thewest.com.au/news/wa/worry-over-sinister-surveillance-of-toys-ng-b88892026z
Leaver, T.Interviewed by Melinda James, Facebook’s Bid for Kids Data, ABC Radio Sydney, National Evenings, 28 December 2017, 8.47pm. [Radio]
Leaver, T. Facebook hoping Messenger Kids will draw future users, and their data, ABC News, 28 December 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-12-28/messenger-kids-is-facebooks-strategy-video-messeging-app-google/9285530?pfmredir=sm§ion=analysis
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Kim Cousins, The Business of Babies and Big Data, Particle, 1 November 2017, https://particle.scitech.org.au/people/%E2%80%8Bthe-business-babies-big-data/
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Alexandra Ristway, Hacked Baby Monitor, Seven Nightly News, Channel 7 WA, 27 September 2017, 6.08pm [TV] (Replayed on Sunrise, Channel 7, 28 September 2017, 7.00am) https://thewest.com.au/technology/security/hacking-horror-in-waikiki-bc-5590305886001
Leaver, T. Interviewed in Cathy O’Leary, The hidden dangers of parents oversharing on social media, The West Australian, 27 September 2017, p. 29, https://thewest.com.au/opinion/cathy-oleary/cathy-oleary-the-hidden-dangers-of-parents-oversharing-on-social-media-ng-b88610062z
Leaver, T interviewed in Kim Cousins, From YouTube to TV and Back Again, Particle, 19 September 2017, https://particle.scitech.org.au/people/from-youtube-to-tv-and-back-again/
Leaver, T interviewed in Leon Compton, Protecting Online Identities of Children, Statewide Mornings, ABC Hobart, 13 September 2017, 9.52am, http://www.abc.net.au/radio/hobart/programs/mornings/social-media-and-parenting/8940830 [Radio]
Leaver, T interviewed by Fiona Parker, Digitising Early Childhood, Breakfast, ABC Central Victoria, 13 September 2017, 9.34am [Radio]
Leaver, T interviewed in Rebecca Turner, Owlet Smark Sock prompts warning for parents, fears over babies’ sensitive health data, ABC News, 12 September 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-09-12/owlet-smart-sock-prompts-warning-for-parents-privacy-concerns/8893104
Leaver, T interviewed in Brigid O’Connell, Kids in data danger: parents ‘oversharenting’, Herald Sun, Melbourne, 12 September 2017, p. 11.
Leaver, T interviewed in ‘Experts have warned parents that a new high-tech baby monitor will not reduce the risk of their baby dying of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome or SIDS’ ABC Radio Perth; ABC Radio Hobart; ABC Radio Adelaide; 12 September 2017. [Radio]
Leaver, T interviewed in Brigid O’Connell, Parents may be unwittingly turning babies into big data, Herald Sun, 11 September 2017, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/victoria/parents-may-be-unwittingly-turning-babies-into-big-data/news-story/c8b6693d390fa95a27162a88f17d71ef
Leaver, T interviewed in Brett Worthington, ‘How social media videos turn children into viral sensations’, Life Matters, Radio National, 11 September 2017, 9.40am, http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lifematters/viral-kids-youtube-instagram-micro-celebrities/8886520
Leaver, T interviewed in Cathy O’Leary, ‘Parents air kids’ lives on social media’. The Weekend West, 9 September 2017, p. 23. [PDF] https://thewest.com.au/news/wa/parents-airing-kids-lives-on-social-media-ng-b88591452z
Leaver, T. interviewed in Syan Dougherty, Sharenting, Today Tonight Perth, Channel 7, 6.30pm, 31 January 2017. https://youtu.be/DZ9RGYN031E
Leaver, T. interviewed in Emily Blatchford, Why Posting Pictures Of Kids On Social Media Doesn’t Float Every Parent’s Boat, Huffington Post Australia, 8 February 2016,
Leaver, T. interviewed in Kristin Shorten, ‘Foetusbook the new Facebook for parents’, News.Com.AU, 30 January 2013,
Leaver, T. invited presentation: ‘How Will Young People Deal With 5000 Baby Photos on Facebook?’, Media 140: Digital Family, Perth, 28 April 2012. [Slides]